1910.1450 Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories
Becomes effective February 13, 1996
Scope and application.
This section shall apply to all employers engaged in the
laboratory use of hazardous chemicals as defined below.
Where this section applies, it shall supersede, for laboratories,
the requirements of all other OSHA health standards in 29 CFR part 1910,
subpart Z, except as follows:
For any OSHA health standard, only the requirement to limit
employee exposure to the specific permissible exposure limit shall apply for
laboratories, unless that particular standard states otherwise or unless the
conditions of paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section apply.
Prohibition of eye and skin contact where specified by any
OSHA health standard shall be observed.
Where the action level (or in the absence of an action level,
the permissible exposure limit) is routinely exceeded for an OSHA regulated
substance with exposure monitoring and medical surveillance requirements
paragraphs (d) and (g)(1)(ii) of this section shall apply.
This section shall not apply to:
Uses of hazardous chemicals which do not meet the definition
of laboratory use, and in such cases, the employer shall comply with the
relevant standard in 29 CFR part 1910, subpart 2, even if such use occurs in
Laboratory uses of hazardous chemicals which provide no
potential for employee exposure. Examples of such conditions might include:
Procedures using chemically-impregnated test media such as
Dip-and-Read tests where a reagent strip is dipped into the specimen to be
tested and the results are interpreted by comparing the color reaction to a
color chart supplied by the manufacturer of the test strip; and
Commercially prepared kits such as those used in performing
pregnancy tests in which all of the reagents needed to conduct the test are
contained in the kit.
"Action level" means a concentration designated in
29 CFR part 1910 for a specific substance, calculated as an eight (8)-hour
time-weighted average, which initiates certain required activities such as
exposure monitoring and medical surveillance.
"Assistant Secretary" means the Assistant Secretary
of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or
"Carcinogen" (see "select carcinogen").
"Chemical Hygiene Officer" means an employee who is
designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training or experience,
to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the
provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan. This definition is not intended to
place limitations on the position description or job classification that the
designated individual shall hold within the employer's organizational
"Chemical Hygiene Plan" means a written program
developed and implemented by the employer which sets forth procedures, equipment,
personal protective equipment and work practices that (i) are capable of
protecting employees from the health hazards presented by hazardous chemicals
used in that particular workplace and (ii) meets the requirements of
paragraph (e) of this section.
"Combustible liquid" means any liquid having a
flashpoint at or above 100 deg. F (37.8 deg. C), but below 200 deg. F (93.3
deg. C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200 deg. F
(93.3 deg. C), or higher, the total volume of which make up 99 percent or
more of the total volume of the mixture.
"Compressed gas" means:
(i) A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an
absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70 deg. F (21.1 deg. C); or
(ii) A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an
absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130 deg. F (54.4 deg C) regardless of
the pressure at 70 deg. F (21.1 deg. C); or
(iii) A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at
100 deg. F (37.8 C) as determined by ASTM D-323-72.
"Designated area" means an area which may be used
for work with "select carcinogens," reproductive toxins or
substances which have a high degree of acute toxicity. A designated area may
be the entire laboratory, an area of a laboratory or a device such as a
"Emergency" means any occurrence such as, but not
limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers or failure of control
equipment which results in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous chemical
into the workplace.
"Employee" means an individual employed in a
laboratory workplace who may be exposed to hazardous chemicals in the course
of his or her assignments.
"Explosive" means a chemical that causes a sudden,
almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to
sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature.
"Flammable" means a chemical that falls into one of
the following categories:
(i) "Aerosol, flammable" means an aerosol that,
when tested by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.45, yields a flame
protection exceeding 18 inches at full valve opening, or a flashback (a flame
extending back to the valve) at any degree of valve opening;
(ii) "Gas, flammable" means:
(A) A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a
flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13 percent by volume or
(B) A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a
range of flammable mixtures with air wider than 12 percent by volume,
regardless of the lower limit.
(iii) "Liquid, flammable" means any liquid having a
flashpoint below 100 deg F (37.8 deg. C), except any mixture having
components with flashpoints of 100 deg. C) or higher, the total of which make
up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.
(iv) "Solid, flammable" means a solid, other than a
blasting agent or explosive as defined in 1910.109(a), that is liable to
cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical
change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited
readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a
serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered to be a flammable solid if,
when tested by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.44, it ignites and burns
with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than one-tenth of an inch per
second along its major axis.
"Flashpoint" means the minimum temperature at which
a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite when tested
(i) Tagliabue Closed Tester (See American National Standard
Method of Test for Flash Point by Tag Closed Tester, Z11.24 - 1979 (ASTM D
56-79)) - for liquids with a viscosity of less than 45 Saybolt Universal
Seconds (SUS) at 100 deg. F (37.8 deg. C), that do not contain suspended solids
and do not have a tendency to form a surface film under test; or
(ii) Pensky-Martens Closed Tester (See American National
Standard Method of Test for Flashpoint by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester, Z11.7
- 1979 (ASTM D 93-79)) - for liquids with a viscosity equal to or greater
than 45 SUS at 100 deg. F (37.8 deg. C ), or that contain suspended solids,
or that have a tendency to form a surface film under test; or
(iii) Setaflash Closed Tester (see American National Standard
Method of test for Flash Point by Setaflash Closed Tester (ASTM D 3278-78)).
Organic peroxides, which undergo autoaccelerating thermal
decomposition, are excluded from any of the flashpoint determination methods
"Hazardous chemical" means a chemical for which
there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study
conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or
chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term "health
hazard" includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic
agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers,
hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the
hematopoietic systems, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or
Appendices A and B of the Hazard Communication Standard (29
CFR 1910.1200) provide further guidance in defining the scope of health
hazards and determining whether or not a chemical is to be considered
hazardous for purposes of this standard.
"Laboratory" means a facility where the
"laboratory use of hazardous chemicals" occurs. It is a workplace
where relatively small quantities of hazardous chemicals are used on a
"Laboratory scale" means work with substances in
which the containers used for reactions, transfers, and other handling of
substances are designed to be easily and safety manipulated by one person.
"Laboratory scale" excludes those workplaces whose function is to
produce commercial quantities of materials.
"Laboratory-type hood" means a device located in a
laboratory, enclosure on five sides with a movable sash or fixed partial
enclosed on the remaining side; constructed and maintained to draw air from
the laboratory and to prevent or minimize the escape of air contaminants into
the laboratory; and allows chemical manipulations to be conducted in the
enclosure without insertion of any portion of the employee's body other than
hands and arms.
Walk-in hoods with adjustable sashes meet the above
definition provided that the sashes are adjusted during use so that the
airflow and the exhaust of air contaminants are not compromised and employees
do not work inside the enclosure during the release of airborne hazardous
"Laboratory use of hazardous chemicals" means
handling or use of such chemicals in which all of the following conditions
(i) Chemical manipulations are carried out on a
(ii) Multiple chemical procedures or chemicals are used;
(iii) The procedures involved are not part of a production
process, nor in any way simulate a production process; and
(iv) "Protective laboratory practices and
equipment" are available and in common use to minimize the potential for
employee exposure to hazardous chemicals.
"Medical consultation" means a consultation which
takes place between an employee and a licensed physician for the purpose of
determining what medical examinations or procedures, if any, are appropriate
in cases where a significant exposure to a hazardous chemical may have taken
"Organic peroxide" means an organic compound that
contains the bivalent -O-O- structure and which may be considered to be a
structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen
atoms has been replaced by an organic radical.
"Oxidizer" means a chemical other than a blasting
agent or explosive as defined in 1910.109(a), that initiates or promotes
combustion in other materials, thereby causing fire either of itself or
through the release of oxygen or other gases.
"Physical hazard" means a chemical for which there
is scientifically valid evidence tat it is a combustible liquid, a compressed
gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer pyrophoric,
unstable (reactive) or water-reactive.
"Protective laboratory practices and equipment"
means those laboratory procedures, practices and equipment accepted by
laboratory health and safety experts as effective, or that the employer can
show to be effective, in minimizing the potential for employee exposure to
"Reproductive toxins" means chemicals which affect
the reproductive chemicals which affect the reproductive capabilities
including chromosomal damage (mutations) and effects on fetuses
"Select carcinogen" means any substance which meets
one of the following criteria:
(i) It is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen; or
(ii) It is listed under the category, "known to be
carcinogens," in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published by the
National Toxicology Program (NTP)(latest edition); or
(iii) It is listed under Group 1 ("carcinogenic to
humans") by the International Agency for research on Cancer Monographs
(IARC)(latest editions); or
(iv) It is listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under
the category, "reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens" by NTP,
and causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals
in accordance with any of the following criteria:
(A) After inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days
per week, for a significant portion of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10
(B) After repeated skin application of less than 300 (mg/kg
of body weight) per week; or
(C) After oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight
"Unstable (reactive)" means a chemical which is the
pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigorously polymerize,
decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shocks,
pressure or temperature.
"Water-reactive" means a chemical that reacts with
water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.
Permissible exposure limits. For laboratory uses of OSHA
regulated substances, the employer shall assure that laboratory employees'
exposures to such substances do not exceed the permissible exposure limits
specified in 29 CFR part 1910, subpart Z.
Employee exposure determination -
Initial monitoring. The employer shall measure the employee's
exposure to any substance regulated by a standard which requires monitoring
if there is reason to believe that exposure levels for that substance
routinely exceed the action level (or in the absence of an action level, the
Periodic monitoring. If the initial monitoring prescribed by paragraph
(d)(1) of this section discloses employee exposure over the action level (or
in the absence of an action level, the PEL), the employer shall immediately
comply with the exposure monitoring provisions of the relevant standard.
Termination of monitoring. Monitoring may be terminated in
accordance with the relevant standard.
Employee notification of monitoring results. The employer
shall, within 15 working days after the receipt of any monitoring results,
notify the employee of these results in writing either individually or by
posting results in an appropriate location that is accessible to employees.
Chemical hygiene plan - General. (Appendix A of this section
is non-mandatory but provides guidance to assist employers in the development
of the Chemical Hygiene Plan).
Where hazardous chemicals as defined by this standard are
used in the workplace, the employer shall develop and carry out the
provisions of a written Chemical Hygiene Plan which is:
Capable of protecting employees from health hazards
associated with hazardous chemicals in that laboratory and
Capable of keeping exposures below the limits specified in
paragraph (c) of this section.
The Chemical Hygiene Plan shall be readily available to
employees, employee representatives and, upon request, to the Assistant
The Chemical Hygiene Plan shall include each of the following
elements and shall indicate specific measures that the employer will take to
ensure laboratory employee protection;
Standard operating procedures relevant to safety and health
considerations to be followed when laboratory work involves the use of
Criteria that the employer will use to determine and
implement control measures to reduce employee exposure to hazardous chemicals
including engineering controls, the use of personal protective equipment and
hygiene practices; particular attention shall be given to the selection of
control measures for chemicals that are known to be extremely hazardous;
A requirement that fume hoods and other protective equipment
are functioning properly and specific measures that shall be taken to ensure
proper and adequate performance of such equipment;
Provisions for employee information and training as
prescribed in paragraph (f) of this section;
The circumstances under which a particular laboratory
operation, procedure or activity shall require prior approval from the
employer or the employer's designee before implementation;
Provisions for medical consultation and medical examinations
in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section;
Designation of personnel responsible for implementation of
the Chemical Hygiene Plan including the assignment of a Chemical Hygiene
Officer, and, if appropriate, establishment of a Chemical Hygiene Committee;
Provisions for additional employee protection for work with
particularly hazardous substances. These include "select
carcinogens," reproductive toxins and substances which have a high
degree of acute toxicity. Specific consideration shall be given to the following
provisions which shall be included where appropriate:
Establishment of a designated area;
Use of containment devices such as fume hoods or glove boxes;
Procedures for safe removal of contaminated waste; and
The employer shall review and evaluate the effectiveness of
the Chemical Hygiene Plan at least annually and update it as necessary.
Employee information and training.
The employer shall provide employees with information and
training to ensure that they are apprised of the hazards of chemicals present
in their work area.
Such information shall be provided at the time of an
employee's initial assignment to a work area where hazardous chemicals are
present and prior to assignments involving new exposure situations. The
frequency of refresher information and training shall be determined by the
Information. Employees shall be informed of:
The contents of this standard and its appendices which shall
be made available to employees;
the location and availability of the employer's Chemical
The permissible exposure limits for OSHA regulated substances
or recommended exposure limits for other hazardous chemicals where there is
no applicable OSHA standard;
Signs and symptoms associated with exposures to hazardous
chemicals used in the laboratory; and
The location and availability of known reference material on
the hazards, safe handling, storage and disposal of hazardous chemicals found
in the laboratory including, but not limited to, Material Safety Data Sheets
received from the chemical supplier.
Employee training shall include:
Methods and observations that may be used to detect the
presence or release of a hazardous chemical (such as monitoring conducted by
the employer, continuous monitoring devices, visual appearance or odor of
hazardous chemicals when being released, etc.);
The physical and health hazards of chemicals in the work
The measures employees can take to protect themselves from
these hazards, including specific procedures the employer has implemented to
protect employees from exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as appropriate
work practices, emergency procedures, and personal protective equipment to be
The employee shall be trained on the applicable details of
the employer's written Chemical Hygiene Plan.
Medical consultation and medical examinations.
The employer shall provide all employees who work with
hazardous chemicals an opportunity to receive medical attention, including
any follow-up examinations which the examining physician determines to be
necessary, under the following circumstances:
Whenever an employee develops signs or symptoms associated
with a hazardous chemical to which the employee may have been exposed in the
laboratory, the employee shall be provided an opportunity to receive an
appropriate medical examination.
Where exposure monitoring reveals an exposure level routinely
above the action level (or in the absence of an action level, the PEL) for an
OSHA regulated substance for which there are exposure monitoring and medical
surveillance requirements, medical surveillance shall be established for the
affected employee as prescribed by the particular standard.
Whenever an event takes place in the work area such as a
spill, leak, explosion or other occurrence resulting in the likelihood of a
hazardous exposure, the affected employee shall be provided an opportunity
for a medical consultation. Such consultation shall be for the purpose of
determining the need for a medical examination.
All medical examinations and consultations shall be performed
by or under the direct supervision of a licensed physician and shall be
provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay and at a
reasonable time and place.
Information provided to the physician. The employer shall
provide the following information to the physician:
The identity of the hazardous chemical(s) to which the
employee may have been exposed;
A description of the conditions under which the exposure
occurred including quantitative exposure data, if available; and
A description of the signs and symptoms of exposure that the
employee is experiencing, if any.
Physician's written opinion.
For examination or consultation required under this standard,
the employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician
which shall include the following:
Any recommendation for further medical follow-up;
The results of the medical examination and any associated
Any medical condition which may be revealed in the course of
the examination which may place the employee at increased risk as a result of
exposure to a hazardous workplace; and
A statement that the employee has been informed by the
physician of the results of the consultation or medical examination and any
medical condition that may require further examination or treatment.
The written opinion shall not reveal specific findings of diagnoses
unrelated to occupational exposure.
With respect to labels and material safety data sheets:
Employers shall ensure that labels on incoming containers of
hazardous chemicals are not removed or defaced.
Employers shall maintain any material safety data sheets that
are received with incoming shipments of hazardous chemicals, and ensure that
they are readily accessible to laboratory employees.
The following provisions shall apply to chemical substances
developed in the laboratory:
If the composition of the chemical substance which is
produced exclusively for the laboratory's use is known, the employer shall
determine if it is a hazardous chemical as defined in paragraph (b) of this
section. If the chemical is determined to be hazardous, the employer shall
provide appropriate training as required under paragraph (f) of this section.
If the chemical produced is a byproduct whose composition is
not known, the employer shall assume that the substance is hazardous and
shall implement paragraph (e) of this section.
If the chemical substance is produced for another user outside
of the laboratory, the employer shall comply with the Hazard Communication
Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) including the requirements for preparation of
material safety data sheets and labeling.
Use of respirators. Where the use of respirators is necessary
to maintain exposure below permissible exposure limits, the employer shall
provide, at no cost to the employee, the proper respiratory equipment.
Respirators shall be selected and used in accordance with the requirements of
29 CFR 1910.134.
The employer shall establish and maintain for each employee
an accurate record of any measurements taken to monitor employee exposures
and any medical consultation and examinations including tests or written
opinions required by this standard.
The employer shall assure that such records are kept,
transferred, and made available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.
Effective date. This section shall become effective May 1,
Employers shall have developed and implemented a written
Chemical Hygiene Plan no later than January 31, 1991.
Paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall not take effect until
the employer has developed and implemented a written Chemical Hygiene Plan.
Appendices. The information contained in the appendices is
not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise
imposed or to detract from any existing obligation.
[61 FR 5507, Feb. 13, 1996]